|Name||Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)|
|Description||Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive and disturbing thoughts as well as by repetitive stereotypic behaviors. OCD is a complex disorder and its pathogenesis is most likely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although more than 140 candidate gene studies have been conducted, the findings have been inconclusive due to small sample size and few study replications. Many studies suggest that abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission is one of the most consistent biological findings in OCD. Studies have also reported dopaminergic abnormalities in the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens, as well as altered glutamate transmission. First line treatments for this disorder are cognitive behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In recent years, one of the promising novel treatment strategies developed to improve the efficacy of treatment for patients with OCD is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Recent studies have suggested that age of onset is an important factor in subtyping OCD. Early-onset OCD has been proposed to be associated with greater symptom severity, a higher prevalence of tic-related disorders, a more familial form of the condition, and a greater prevalence of psychiatry disorders in first-degree relatives as compared to late-onset OCD.|
|Category||Mental and behavioural disorders|
|Gene||BDNF (polymorphism) [HSA:627] [KO:K04355]
HTR2A (promoter polymorphism) [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
SLC6A4 (polymorphism) [HSA:6532] [KO:K05037]
COMT (polymorphism) [HSA:1312] [KO:K00545]
MAOA (polymorphism) [HSA:4128] [KO:K00274]
SLC1A1 (polymorphism) [HSA:6505] [KO:K05612]
DRD4 (polymorphism) [HSA:1815] [KO:K04147]
|Comment||For Tourette syndrome, see H00862.|
|Other DBs||ICD-10: F42
Early versus late onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence for distinct subtypes.
Clin Psychol Rev 31:1083-100 (2011)
Leckman JF, Bloch MH, King RA
Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci 11:21-33 (2009)
Tukel R, Gurvit H, Ozata B, Ozturk N, Ertekin BA, Ertekin E, Baran B, Kalem SA, Buyukgok D, Direskeneli GS
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 159B:850-8 (2012)
Walitza S, Wewetzer C, Warnke A, Gerlach M, Geller F, Gerber G, Gorg T, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Schulz E, Remschmidt H, Hebebrand J, Hinney A
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Mol Psychiatry 7:1054-7 (2002)
Hu XZ, Lipsky RH, Zhu G, Akhtar LA, Taubman J, Greenberg BD, Xu K, Arnold PD, Richter MA, Kennedy JL, Murphy DL, Goldman D
Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Am J Hum Genet 78:815-26 (2006)
Sampaio AS, Hounie AG, Petribu K, Cappi C, Morais I, Vallada H, do Rosario MC, Stewart SE, Fargeness J, Mathews C, Arnold P, Hanna GL, Richter M, Kennedy J, Fontenelle L, de Braganca Pereira CA, Pauls DL, Miguel EC
COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a family-based association study.
PLoS One 10:e0119592 (2015)
Dickel DE, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cox NJ, Wu X, Fischer DJ, Van Etten-Lee M, Himle JA, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr, Hanna GL
Association testing of the positional and functional candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAC1 in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:778-85 (2006)
Millet B, Chabane N, Delorme R, Leboyer M, Leroy S, Poirier MF, Bourdel MC, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Rouillon F, Loo H, Krebs MO
Association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 116B:55-9 (2003)
Vakili Y, Gharaee B, Habibi M
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Their Combination in the Improvement of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Experiential Avoidance in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 9:e845 (2015)
Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Kelmendi B, Coric V, Bracken MB, Leckman JF
A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Mol Psychiatry 11:622-32 (2006)