Manic depressive illness
|Description||Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depressive illness, is a severe chronic mood disorder, characterized by the recurrence of mania (hypomania), depression, or mixed episodes. It is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. Mania is the most characteristic phase of bipolar disorder. While mood elevation and euphoria are commonly described phenotypic descriptors of mania, irritability and anger may dominate. At the present time, there is solid evidence supporting the use of lithium, the anticonvulsants valproate and carbamazepine, and some antipsychotics in mania. Manic or hypomanic episodes differ in severity and length. In a hypomanic episode, a disturbance in functioning can be seen by others but does not typically cause severe impairment or require admission to hospital. At onset, most patients with bipolar disorder present with a depressive episode that differs subtly from unipolar depression. The first step in the management of bipolar disorder is to confirm the diagnosis of mania or hypomania and define the patient's mood state, because the therapeutic approach differs considerably for hypomania, mania, depression, and euthymia. While effective pharmacological treatments exist for bipolar disorder, the pathophysiology of the condition essentially remains unknown. Although bipolar disorder is one of the most heritable psychiatric disorders, a multifactorial model in which gene and environment interact is currently thought to best fit this disorder. Many risk alleles of small effect which are described in genome-wide association studies, contribute to the polygenic risk of bipolar disorder. It is suggested that the dopaminergic system may play a central role in bipolar disorder, although no singular dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems has been identified.|
|Category||Mental and behavioural disorder|
|Drug||Divalproex sodium [DR:D00304]
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride [DR:D00789]
Ziprasidone hydrochloride [DR:D01939]
Lurasidone hydrochloride [DR:D04820]
Quetiapine fumarate [DR:D00458]
Asenapine maleate [DR:D02995]
Lithium carbonate [DR:D00801]
Cariprazine hydrochloride [DR:D09876]
Fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D00823]
Olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D10206]
|Comment||Bipolar I disorder: At least one manic episode must be presented, although major depressive episodes are typical but not needed for diagnosis.
Bipolar II disorder: At least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode are needed for diagnosis.
See also H01646 Major depressive disorder.
|Other DBs||ICD-11: 6A60 6A61
OMIM: 125480 309200
AUTHORS Grande I, Berk M, Birmaher B, Vieta E
TITLE Bipolar disorder.
JOURNAL Lancet 387:1561-72 (2016)
AUTHORS Graham RK, Parker GB, Breakspear M, Mitchell PB
TITLE Clinical characteristics and temperament influences on 'happy' euphoric and 'snappy' irritable bipolar hypo/manic mood states.
JOURNAL J Affect Disord 174:144-9 (2015)
AUTHORS Cousins DA, Butts K, Young AH
TITLE The role of dopamine in bipolar disorder.
JOURNAL Bipolar Disord 11:787-806 (2009)
AUTHORS Citrome L
TITLE Cariprazine in bipolar disorder: clinical efficacy, tolerability, and place in therapy.
JOURNAL Adv Ther 30:102-13 (2013)
AUTHORS Vieta E, Sanchez-Moreno J
TITLE Acute and long-term treatment of mania.
JOURNAL Dialogues Clin Neurosci 10:165-79 (2008)