|Name||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);
|Description||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a representative chronic inflammatory disorder of the lungs that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is characterized by airway inflammation and progressive airflow obstruction, most commonly caused by cigarette smoking. The major symptoms of which patients complain are cough, breathlessness, and sputum production. COPD is associated with underlying inflammation in response to chronic exposure to noxious particulates and gases and with a number of comorbid conditions. The onset of COPD generally occurs in the 6th to 8th decades of life. Early onset COPD is defined as disease onset before the age of 50 years, irrespective of smoking history. The presence of persons with early onset, severely reduced pulmonary function suggests that individuals may vary in their genetic susceptibility to the effects of smoking. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for COPD. Bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment since they improve lung function and reduce acute exacerbations. Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators are recommended as first line treatment for patients with persistent symptoms.|
|Gene||SERPINA1 [HSA:5265] [KO:K03984]|
|Env factor||Cigarette smoking|
Budesonide - formoterol mixture [DR:D09595]
Salmeterol xinafoate - fluticasone propionate mixt [DR:D08699]
Tiotropium - olodaterol mixture [DR:D10744]
Indacaterol maleate [DR:D09319]
Umeclidinium - vilanterol mixture [DR:D10533]
Fluticasone - vilanterol mixture [DR:D10501]
|Comment||See also H01103 Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency|
|Other DBs||ICD-10: J43 J44
Smith J, Woodcock A
Cough and its importance in COPD.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 1:305-14 (2006)
Tsuchida T, Matsuse H, Nishino T, Kawano T, Fukushima C, Hayashi T, Kohno S
Pathologically confirmed, early-onset, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Intern Med 51:3411-4 (2012)
Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'DONNELL WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns L, Mentzer S, Wain J, Speizer FE
Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Risk to relatives for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:1770-8 (1998)
Indacaterol maleate for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Expert Opin Pharmacother 11:2077-85 (2010)
Malerba M, Morjaria JB, Radaeli A
Differential pharmacology and clinical utility of emerging combination treatments in the management of COPD--role of umeclidinium/vilanterol.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 9:687-95 (2014)
Reid DJ, Carlson AA
Clinical use of aclidinium in patients with COPD.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 9:369-79 (2014)
Horita N, Kaneko T
Role of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149) for the treatment of COPD in Japan.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 10:813-22 (2015)