|Description||Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a term for an event of heart attack. It is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, nausea, epigastric discomfort, syncope, diaphoresis, and other factors. The diagnosis of MI is dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the clinical criteria, electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, imaging studies and biomarkers used to detect death of cardiomyocytes. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart.|
|Env factor||Old age
High blood pressure
High levels of LDL
High cholesterol and fat
Chronic kidney disease
|Marker||Cardiac troponin I
Cardiac troponin T
Propranolol [DR:D00483] Timolol [DR:D00603] Metoprolol [DR:D00601 D00635] (Beta-blockers)
Enalapril [DR:D00621] (ACE inhibitors)
Simvastatin [DR:D00434] (Statins)
|Other DBs||ICD-10: I21
|Reference||PMID:25638347 (definition, env_factor, drug)
Lu L, Liu M, Sun R, Zheng Y, Zhang P
Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments.
Cell Biochem Biophys 72:865-7 (2015)
PMID:22922597 (description, marker)
Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Simoons ML, Chaitman BR, White HD
Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.
Nat Rev Cardiol 9:620-33 (2012)
PMID:26426469 (description, drug)
Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction.
Compr Physiol 5:1841-75 (2015)